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Analysis of an attempted attack against Intel 471

Mar 26, 2020
Intel 471 Background

By the Intel 471 Malware Intelligence team.


The following write-up is our analysis of an attack attempted against one of our employees this week. At no point was our employee’s system at risk of being compromised. Interestingly, the employee’s email address only had been used in very few instances externally. We are releasing this information publicly to share tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) and encourage others to share similar incidents.


The threat actor that sent this malspam campaign demonstrated good operational security (OPSEC) by hiding their infrastructure behind professional bulletproof hosting (BPH) services and by filtering traffic to hide final payloads from curious researchers. The actor used a series of tools in this operation, including KeitaroTDS, a malicious Microsoft Excel spreadsheet document builder and the Zloader banking trojan (aka Terdot).

Considering the nature of the malspam documents (usually named “Invoice”) and the use of a banking trojan, we assess the intended goal of the attackers was to make unauthorized bank transfers from victim accounts.

Email details

The following email was sent to **** 5:26:11 p.m. GMT, Monday, March 23, 2020:

FilenameMarch Incoming Invoice from Seed Records.eml
SHA256 hash5d1bb0aef5545138feb825d5b0669ccc4a68abb4323362f2fe188e86c62aeed0

The sender was an AOL mail account, using the AOL mail portal and a Windows machine using the Google Chrome browser (if the user agent can be trusted).

From: Annika Preston <[email protected]>
To: ****

Message-ID: <[email protected]>
Subject: March Incoming Invoice from Seed Records
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed;
References: <[email protected]>
X-Mailer: WebService/1.1.15518 aolwebmail Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/79.0.3945.130 Safari/537.36

Sender IP address

The mail was received from the Yahoo mail netspace.

Received: from
( [])

by with ESMTPS id c76si12645930ilg.12.2020. for <****> (version=TLS1_2 cipher=ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 bits=128/128); Mon, 23 Mar 2020 10:26:16 -0700 (PDT)

Excel spreadsheet details

The spreadsheet’s metadata contained the following information:

Create time2020-02-27 10:23:09.379000
Last saved time2020-03-23 12:01:22

The document implemented malicious Excel 4.0 Macros (XLM) to download and execute the secondary stage payload.

These macros were present in a hidden sheet named "DiOAFArhpr". The macros were written vertically, character-by-character inside different cells. This approach was employed to bypass detection since analysis tools can fail to retrieve the command strings.

The executed macros were:



=ALERT("The workbook cannot be opened or repaired
by Microsoft Excel because it's corrupt.",2)

The DLL at the location hxxps://grpxmqnrb[.]pw/egrg4g3g was retrieved and saved under "C:\Users\Public\fef2fff.html" before being executed.

As shown in the HTTP request below, the malicious server performed a redirection to the GitHub software development platform (GitHub was advised) and downloaded a dynamic link library (DLL) from a public repository.

GET /egrg4g3g HTTP/1.1
Host: grpxmqnrb[.]pw
User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.0)Accept: */*HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Server: nginx
Date: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 13:00:34 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 0
Connection: keep-alive
Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate,post-check=0,pre-check=0
Expires: 0
Last-Modified: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 13:00:34 GMT
Location: hxxps://github[.]com/arntsonl/calc_security_poc/raw/master/dll/calc.dll
Pragma: no-cache
Set-Cookie: _subid=357bngnes3kqn;
Expires=Friday, 24-Apr-2020 13:00:34 GMT;Max-Age=2678400;Path=/
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff

Examining it revealed it does nothing but pop the Windows calculator.

Clearly, we have received a decoy payload.

Network artifact research

The malicious Excel document contained a macro that downloaded a file from:


Creation Date2020-03-23T07:08:34.0Z
Expiration Date2021-03-23T23:59:59.0Z

The domain name probably was created solely for this campaign because it was created only days ago and appears to have no legitimate web presence.

An instance of KeitaroTDS (Traffic Directional System) was found on this domain:

The domain has the following DNS records:

grpxmqnrb[.]pw. 600 IN NS
grpxmqnrb[.]pw. 600 IN NS
grpxmqnrb[.]pw. 600 IN NS
grpxmqnrb[.]pw. 600 IN A
grpxmqnrb[.]pw. 600 IN SOA 1584947588 3600 180 1209600 180

We can see the domain is administered via DNSPod, a product of Chinese company Tencent (

The IP address in the address record or “A record” belongs to Alibaba Cloud aka Aliyun.

inetnum: -
netname: ALICLOUD-GB
descr: Aliyun Computing Co.LTD

This IP address was identified by our intelligence team as hosted by the well-known Russian-based BPH service yalishanda. The actor yalishanda’s service offers a reverse proxy network that abuses cloud providers, such as Alibaba-Cloud, Tencent Cloud, Google Cloud and others. The service uses the Chinese based free DNS provider DNSPOD to rotate client domains across the reverse proxy network. This can be thought of as a host-based fast-flux service. The fact the threat actors behind this attack have the ability to access and pay for BPH infrastructure lends more credence to the idea they are a somewhat capable and well-resourced group.

The following table contains information on the SSL certificate used by the domain:

Common namegrpxmqnrb[.]pw
IssuerLet's Encrypt Authority X3
ValidFrom March 22, 2020 to June 20, 2020
Signature Algorithmsha256WithRSAEncryption
Serial Number041117a29a27b3b4bda2f53fd1d8ab9581d9

Passive DNS Results

Passive DNS results showed plenty of similar and recent activity associated with the IP address 8.208.28[.]247.

DomainFirst Seen
grpxmqnrb[.]pw2020-03-23 00:20:31Associated with this campaign and with Yalishanda bulletproof hosting infrastructure.
gfhudnjv[.]xyz2020-03-24 03:10:29Associated with Yalishanda bulletproof hosting infrastructure.
wgyafqtc[.]online2020-03-18 15:30:23Associated with similar Excel doc based campaign:
wgyvjbse[.]pw2020-03-18 14:45:51Confirmed Zloader controller domain name
botiq[.]xyz2020-03-18 14:46:16Confirmed Zloader controller domain name
dhteijwrb[.]host2020-03-17 07:55:04Linked directly to a very similar campaign: Associated with Yalishanda bulletproof hosting infrastructure.
tdvomds[.]pw2020-03-16 17:00:00Same type of activity: Associated with Yalishanda bulletproof hosting infrastructure.
siloban[.]pw2020-03-17 07:54:50Linked to 161.117.177[.]248 which is a confirmed Zloader controller address and part of yalishanda’s fast-flux bulletproof hosting infrastructure. Also a confirmed Zloader controller domain name.
hxzfvomd[.]buzz2020-03-15 17:00:00Linked to several similar campaigns and associated with Yalishanda bulletproof hosting infrastructure.

Reconstructing the attack

We initially were unable to download the intended payload from hxxps://grpxmqnrb[.]pw/egrg4g3g, but by following the trail of infrastructure and record of activity, we were able to reproduce the steps and continue the investigation.

The file invoice-522.xls (SHA256: 34c5591a749636853aef4f9b3867560319d78ab530a332575fee88a85287dcfa) was analyzed on the VirusTotal intelligence platform and found to communicate with the same IP address, although via a different domain and file path. This likely is a previous campaign by the same threat actor or group.

This analysis provided a successful fetch of the initial payload: 06afeaf2b0b985e0d9e048ea8ef0231026cac4c03d3ddf45f6a4ab18d884505c

This payload is an exact match of the one received by Amirreza Niakanlahiji and Pedram Amini in their blog post on a previous campaign from the same actors (see: They received a payload that contacted some unknown controllers:

  • hxxps://aquolepp[.]pw/milagrecf.php
  • hxxps://dhteijwrb[.]host/milagrecf.php

We recognized these as Zloader control server addresses because they are re-using the milagrecf.php file path for their controller URLs.

Was it possible our campaign was unrelated? As an analyst, one must always approach an investigation with a healthy dose of skepticism. A few instances of similar behavior can be coincidental. We should look for patterns of behavior to learn how the operation works.

By pivoting on the response content, we found several similar URLs first seen recently:

First SeenAV ScoreURL
2020-03-190/ 76hxxps://wgyafqtc[.]online/fgwg24g24g
2020-03-194/ 76hxxps://tdvomds[.]pw/fgwg24g24g
2020-03-170/ 71hxxp://tdvomds[.]pw/12341324rfefv
2020-03-195/ 76hxxps://tdvomds[.]pw/12341324rfefv
2020-03-161/ 71hxxps://hxzfvomd[.]buzz/asf2f1ff
2020-03-161/ 71hxxp://hxzfvomd[.]buzz/asf2f1ff
2020-03-052/ 71hxxp://pjtcdnrd[.]pw/fsgbfgbfsg43
2020-03-050/ 71hxxps://pjtcdnrd[.]pw/fsgbfgbfsg43
2020-03-042/ 71hxxp://wrjmkdod[.]xyz/SDFwef2fvbbe

The pattern of behavior is becoming clear. Most of these domains can be linked to malicious Excel documents apparently created by the same malicious document builder. Based on the research, we can attribute some TTPs to this threat actor.

Tactics, techniques and procedures

The threat actor proved to have access to many resources in the criminal underground and is comfortable with a range of tools to run the operation. The following TTPs were observed:

  • Hiding infrastructure behind BPH from the known vendor yalishanda. See Brian Krebs’ blog post on yalishanda here.
  • Using a malicious Excel document builder to craft documents for malspam campaigns.
  • Using KeitaroTDS for routing traffic and controlling campaign infrastructure.
  • Using Zloader banking trojan for establishing control on victim machines and staging additional payloads such as hidden virtual network computing (HVNC) and launching web-injects.
  • Using legitimate secure sockets layer (SSL) certificates signed by Let’s Encrypt.

Indicators of compromise

These can be downloaded in CSV format here.

Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxps://wgyafqtc[.]online/fgwg24g24g
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxps://tdvomds[.]pw/fgwg24g24g
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxp://tdvomds[.]pw/12341324rfefv
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxps://tdvomds[.]pw/12341324rfefv
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxps://hxzfvomd[.]buzz/asf2f1ff
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxp://hxzfvomd[.]buzz/asf2f1ff
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxp://pjtcdnrd[.]pw/fsgbfgbfsg43
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxps://pjtcdnrd[.]pw/fsgbfgbfsg43
Download link from malicious Excel documenthxxp://wrjmkdod[.]xyz/SDFwef2fvbbe
Yalishanda bulletproof hosting IP8.208.28[.]247
Yalishanda bulletproof hosting IP161.117.177[.]248
Zloader controller URLhxxps://aquolepp[.]pw/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://barbeyo[.]xyz/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://bhajkqmd[.]xyz/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://botiq[.]xyz/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://buhjike[.]host/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://bwambztl[.]xyz/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://dhteijwrb[.]host/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://rizoqur[.]pw/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://siloban[.]pw/milagrecf.php
Zloader controller URLhxxps://wgyvjbse[.]pw/milagrecf.php
Malicious Excel document samplecfe139d639d461fe731427e79bd7048849080d4d7d906d10fae764eb056f1f0b
Malicious Excel document samplef1ced9008d9de4109844d99fc924b6e3e4a4062ed37b52ce4b5baed430d004cf
Malicious Excel document sample4a5d8cde14f9e8c4f1a0cf514ca084528631d6caa8aa5282a4bf8f58dbf54f33
Malicious Excel document sample9e5edda543358b7ead2614ff75e23d2c271cb917a89003fa8733d9d730950507
Malicious Excel document sample30175739414fa301617ed6f0234992f1b3bc67a8547185cd332ad42c5a170486
Malicious Excel document sample34c5591a749636853aef4f9b3867560319d78ab530a332575fee88a85287dcfa
Zloader malware sample8021084f2d006101e0522f62de9c1e22ec55a6639e792dc7eff2826c013597a9
Zloader malware samplee81d729e1b810215940eb96e1de3e9500f522e9ba16bca2f9d49113fb462bb4d
Zloader malware sample0889271c721391d625a19391275f0e6bf244a5548a1a6eb673c6e16a48e960e1
Zloader malware sample3703d42ee0a6c4115295f14f3980cf205f7e6fb77ed0301c845431728015c812
Zloader malware sample3f2cf070e3740514c4e0dd431392a6727250a9ad3425c5b25ffad2d9d3b74716
Zloader malware sample66f49a261b6086dfdd1c3e2a21f7cb746aa35707490cbd64693d66383ba54c64
Zloader malware sample776fee630d6f89a7a01c5903de93fbd9f12f5cba8df148330a8c6f0cd267890b
Zloader malware sample945e3e4f52d30e07a281b20f96bf7150234c18aa4373c683dee74a194b57dcc0
Zloader malware samplea347f8b4a17dffa05a4fe9602cf99302201220e7000b5826798dd3d8db7b2b7f
Zloader malware sampleac60a7471ee5297b9cefb5b3d1c1dbec4b7bf328c8b8649529202a1381acb2a5